Genomic comparison and diversity of tailed phages. Upper left: Whole genome nucleotide dot plot of the N4-like phages reveals five subclusters of phages that infect the Enterobacteriacae. Phage genomes and clusters are divided by thin and thick red lines, respectively. Dot plots was produced using Gepartd at a word size of 11. Hosts are provided on the Y-axis and are Erwinia (blue), Escherichia (red), Salmonella (yellow), Shigella (green) and the non-Enterabacteriaceae Achromobacter (black bullseye). Center: Neighbor-joining tree of representative Enterobacteriaceae tailed phage major capsid proteins. Phage clusters to which the representative sequences belong are indicated. Upper right, lower left: Transmission electron micrograph of Erwinia phages isolated from an apple orchard in Salem, Utah. These two Erwinia phages have not yet been studied but preliminary evidence suggests that they will be founders of new clusters not described by Grose and Casjens, further emphasizing the diversity of the tailed phages.

Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages

Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages: The tailed phages that infect the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae Read the full article on ScienceDirect. We have long-term interests in the diversity of E. coli/Salmonella phages (Casjens) and Erwinia phages (Grose) and wanted to know how the phages we have studied fit into the bigger picture of phage diversity.…

Top: maturation of MVM wildtype replication foci is relatively unaffected by NP1 expression.  However, the paralysis seen at an early stage of development of these foci in NS2-null mutant virus is reversed by NP1 expression.
Bottom: NP1 expression marginally increases the amplification of monomer and dimer replicative form viral DNA duplexes (mRF & dRF), but substantially rescues synthesis of these viral DNA species.

Exploring the convergent evolution of parvovirus proteins

Complementation for an essential ancillary non-structural protein function across parvovirus genera Read the full article on ScienceDirect. Parvoviruses have a small (5kb) single-stranded DNA genome that is almost entirely devoted to the expression of two essential genes; one encoding a rolling-hairpin replication initiator protein with HuH nickase and SF3 AAA+ helicase functions, and a second…

Minsky_Figure2

Giant Viruses: Special Issue of Virology

Editors: Richard C. Condit and Matthias G. Fischer Read the Giant Viruses Special Issue on Science Direct for free. The October issue of Virology is a Special Issue on Giant Viruses. Here is an excerpt of the editorial, by Editor Matthias G. Fischer. You can read the editorial in full, for free, on ScienceDirect. Viruses…

Rabbit

Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus is keeping up in the evolutionary arms race with its host

Increased virulence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) – free access Read the full article on ScienceDirect. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is an invasive species in into Australia that damages agriculture and wreaks havoc on the environment. To control rabbits, Australia has introduced two different…

Genotype displacement events in the lower Columbia River basin and Washington state coast. The Columbia River basin located in Washington (WA), Idaho (ID), and Oregon (OR). Arrows represent dominant genotypes present in each region. Dates of dominance are shown below arrows.

Superinfection fitness does not drive genotype displacement in fish rhabdovirus

Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus Read the full article on ScienceDirect. Genetic epidemiological studies of the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) throughout the U.S. Pacific Northwest previously identified three major virus genotype displacement events which occurred in trout over the last 35 years.…

In RSV infected cells and in vitro, the trc promoter sequence (left) can be modified by back-priming. The RNA folds into a secondary structure, with nucleotides 1 and 2 base-pairing with nucleotides 14 and 13, and one to three nucleotides (red) are added to the RNA 3´ end by the viral polymerase (orange oval). Back-priming can also occur on the le promoter sequence in vitro, but does not occur in infected cells.

Understanding respiratory syncytial virus genome synthesis

Factors affecting de novo RNA synthesis and back-priming by the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase Read the full article on ScienceDirect. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a paramyxovirus, one of the non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses. The long-term goal of our research is to understand how RSV mRNA, antigenome and genome synthesis are regulated. We previously…