Structures and receptor binding characteristics of H5 HAs described in this study.

Receptor binding in bird flu

Enhanced human receptor binding by H5 haemagglutinins Read the full article on ScienceDirect. Virologists and public health officials share an interest in the mechanism of influenza virus cross-species transmission because of the potential of newly introduced viruses to cause pandemics. Analyses of naturally and experimentally transmitted viruses indicate roles for several gene products in the…

Pox

The Virologist’s Bookshelf – Part 4

In this continuing series of blog posts, the Editor-in-Chief of Virology, Michael Emerman, recommends books chosen for their descriptions of the roles of viruses and viral disease in the broader contexts of human health, society and history. This is part 4, with books about Smallpox and about Prions. Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of…

A recombinant form of the gp120 protein.  The two parental sequences are shown in green and gold, with a pair of coevolving residues in blue.  The recombination breakpoint (where green and gold meet) is rarely found so that it splits up the coevolved residues.

Analyzing breakpoints to understand HIV-1 evolution

Constraints from protein structure and intra-molecular coevolution influence the fitness of HIV-1 recombinants Read the full article on ScienceDirect. HIV-1 infections remain a major cause of human disease. The main reason for our inability to provide a cure is the virus’s very high rate of evolution. This leads to several negative consequences, including the virus’s…

Structure of influenza A virus (left) showing the two major surface glycoproteins, neuraminidase (red) and hemagglutinin (blue). Zoomed-in 3D structure view (right) showing the location of the potential NA antigenic sites of human H1N1 viruses isolated between 1934 and 2007. A total of 20 amino acids in the seven loops denoted in different colors are depicted on the upper NA globular head in this carton model. The amino acid residues in the enzyme active site are highlighted in yellow. Illustration created by Dan Higgins and Feng Liu

Immunity induced by influenza virus neuraminidase

Evaluation of the antigenic relatedness and cross-protective immunity of the neuraminidase between human influenza A (H1N1) virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus Read the full article on ScienceDirect. With continued human cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection, there is a concern that this virus could cause a pandemic. A…

OriginofAIDS

The Virologist’s Bookshelf – Part 3

In this continuing series of blog posts, the Editor-in-Chief of Virology, Michael Emerman, recommends books chosen for their descriptions of the roles of viruses and viral disease in the broader contexts of human health, society and history. Here’s part 3 with two books about HIV/AIDS. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS…

Penetration of pollen tubes with accumulated RBDV into stigmas is essential in causing the first viral infection in the stigma to lead to systemic infection. (A) RBDV accumulates in the tip of the pollen tubes. Positive reactions to the tips (dark color) were detected in the tips of the pollen tubes. (B) Pollen tube from RBDV-infected raspberry pollen grains penetrates into a Torenia stigma. RBDV-infected raspberry pollen grain was germinated on Torenia stigma, and the pollen tube penetrated into the Torenia stigma at the base of the stigmatic papillar cell. (C) The first viral infection site to lead to horizontal transmission by pollen is a stigma. The positive signal at the stigma proceeded strongly, and the style showed the positive signal two days after pollination of RBDV-infected raspberry pollen grains.

How viruses hitch a ride on pollen to infect plants

Penetration of pollen tubes with accumulated Raspberry bushy dwarf virus into stigmas is involved in initial infection of maternal tissue and horizontal transmission Read the full article on ScienceDirect – free access Pollination is an essential step in the reproduction of flowering plants and is also crucial in agriculture in regard to fruit development, seed…

Figure Kanematsu

Genome rearrangements in a bipartite dsRNA virus

Genome rearrangement of a mycovirus Rosellinia necatrix megabirnavirus 1 affecting its ability to attenuate virulence of the host fungus Read the full article on ScienceDirect. Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi. Most mycoviruses are asymptomatic, but some induce phenotypical changes in their host fungi. Previous examination of field isolates of the destructive root rot pathogen…

A. Orsay virus is the only virus capable of naturally infecting C. elegans.  B. Schema of Orsay protein expression strategy defined in this study. C.  A peptide spanning the ribosomal framshifting site was detected by Mass spectrometry. D. Electron microscopy of highly purified Orsay virions.

Exploring novel biology through a nematode virus

Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions Read the full article on ScienceDirect. Orsay virus is the first identified virus capable of naturally infecting Caenorhabditis elegans. Our recent discovery of Orsay virus along with two other nematode infecting viruses, Santueil and Le Blanc, enables for the first…