A variety of complex sugars decorate an animal virus particle

N-glycosylation profiling of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus envelope glycoprotein 5 Read the full article on ScienceDirect Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a positive-sense ssRNA virus, emerged in the late 1980’s and quickly became the most serious disease of swine worldwide. Attenuated vaccines partially or completely protect individual animals from challenge, but solidly…

Orchestrated cellular gene expression in cells infected by adenovirus

Fluctuating expression of microRNAs in adenovirus infected cells Read the full article on ScienceDirect Adenoviruses are wonderful study objects. They are beautiful to watch in the electron microscope and they infect human cells with an exceptional efficiently. Milligram quantities of pure virus can be obtained with insignificant efforts. Still, the virus usually treats its host mildly…

Polyomavirus T antigens activate an antiviral state

Read the full article on ScienceDirect Most viruses have mechanisms for evading or inhibiting the host’s innate immune response. We have found that the human polyomaviruses, BKV and JCV activate the interferon response and induce an antiviral state when expressed in primary mouse cells. Both the activation of the interferon pathway and the induction of…

Land plants are (almost) never virus-free

Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes Read the full article on ScienceDirect This project started as a bioinformatic study of the enigmatic 30K superfamily of plant virus movement proteins (MP). This protein superfamily is widespread in viruses with different kinds of genomes, but, despite…

Stop Me If I’m Restarting Myself

Some double-stranded RNA viruses from fungi utilize a small, pseudoknot-containing RNA cassette to promote stop/restart translation of their RNA polymerase Read the full article on ScienceDirect In 1996, when those of us in the Ghabrial lab reported the sequence of prototype Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S (HvV190S), of what is now genus Victorivirus in family Totiviridae, we…

Overcoming host range barriers through single mutations

Evolutionary genetics and vector adaptation of recombinant viruses of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex provides new insights into alphavirus diversity and host switching Read the full article on ScienceDirect Alphaviruses are a group of arthropod-borne positive-sense RNA viruses that contain many important human and veterinary pathogens. A notable example is Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which although…

Roseoloviruses: Ubiquitous in humans and macaques

Roseoloviruses: Ubiquitous in humans and macaques Read the full article on ScienceDirect Human herpesviruses HHV-6A, 6B and 7 are classified as Roseoloviruses within the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily and are highly prevalent in the human population. Following primary infections roseoloviruses establish life-long latency with occasional reactivation. Viral reactivation in immuno-compromised patients can cause severe pathological conditions. Macaques…

Genomic comparison and diversity of tailed phages. Upper left: Whole genome nucleotide dot plot of the N4-like phages reveals five subclusters of phages that infect the Enterobacteriacae. Phage genomes and clusters are divided by thin and thick red lines, respectively. Dot plots was produced using Gepartd at a word size of 11. Hosts are provided on the Y-axis and are Erwinia (blue), Escherichia (red), Salmonella (yellow), Shigella (green) and the non-Enterabacteriaceae Achromobacter (black bullseye). Center: Neighbor-joining tree of representative Enterobacteriaceae tailed phage major capsid proteins. Phage clusters to which the representative sequences belong are indicated. Upper right, lower left: Transmission electron micrograph of Erwinia phages isolated from an apple orchard in Salem, Utah. These two Erwinia phages have not yet been studied but preliminary evidence suggests that they will be founders of new clusters not described by Grose and Casjens, further emphasizing the diversity of the tailed phages.

Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages

Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages: The tailed phages that infect the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae Read the full article on ScienceDirect. We have long-term interests in the diversity of E. coli/Salmonella phages (Casjens) and Erwinia phages (Grose) and wanted to know how the phages we have studied fit into the bigger picture of phage diversity.…